Alloying Elements and the Effects on Steel


Aluminum - Al

Antimony - Sb

Arsenic - As

Boron - B

Calcium - Ca

Carbon - C

Cerium - Ce

Chromium - Cr

Copper - Cu

Lead - Pb

Manganese - Mn

Molybdenum - Mo

Nickel - Ni

Niobium - Nb

Nitrogen - N

Phosphorous - P

Silicon - Si

Sulfur - S

Tin - Sn

Titanium - Ti

Tungsten - W

Vanadium - V

Zicronium - Zr

Deoxidizes and restricts grain growth

Reduces the adsorption of nitrogen

Reduces stress corrosion cracking

Increases hardenability

Reduces oxide

Increases hardenability and strength

Precipitation hardening agent

Increases corrosion resistance, hardenability and wear resistance

Increases precipitation hardening properties

Increases machineability

Increases hardenability and counteracts brittleness from sulfur

Deepens hardening, raises creep strength and hot-hardness, enhances corrosion resistance and increases wear resistance

Increases strength and toughness

Stabilizes carbon and performs similar to titanium; strengthens steels for high temperature service

Increases carbon stability and yield strength

Increases strength, machineability, and corrosion resistance

Deoxidizes, helps electrical and magnetic properties, improves hardness and oxidation resistance

Improves machineability.  When combined with manganese, has higher melting point than iron sulphide and greatly reduces weak spots at the grain boundaries during hot working.

Resists corrosion

Stabilizes carbide, tends to minimise the occurence of inter-granular corrosion

Increases wear resistance and raises hot strength and hot-hardness

Increases hardenability

Improves low temperature toughness of steel